Find out the role of GM1 in the neurological physiology, its anti-aging properties, and the clinical effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems.
What is Monosialotrahexosylganglioside Solidum (GM1)
Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside sodium is a neurotrophic nutrient whose abbreviation is GM1.
Gangliosides belong to the class of ganglio series, which comprise of a glycosphingolipid with sialic acid residue on the sugar chain. The sialated polysaccharide chain connects with ceramide via a β-glycosidic linkage. They are not only constituted within the neuronal plasmic membrane but also in the endoplasmic reticulum.
Although they make up for 0.1% of the total weight of the brain, gangliosides account for almost 10% of the overall lipids. They induce cell differentiation, apoptosis, neuroprotection, and the release of neurotrophins.
Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside is a disproportionate compound consisting of an oligosaccharide chain and ceramide. The molecule exhibits both hydrophilic and lipophilic properties. Being soluble in water and fats, Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside can easily navigate through the blood-brain barrier.
Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside sodium GM1 plays a significant physiological role in the brain. It exhibits neuroprotective properties such as repairing neurological damages, functional recovery, and regeneration of neurons after injury. For this reason, Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside sodium is useful in the treatment of central nervous injury. Some of the related ailments include cerebrospinal trauma, cerebrovascular damage, and traumatic nerve cell injury. More of it is concentrated where there is nerve cell damage.
History of Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside Sodium (GM1)
The study of GM1 and its role in neuroprotection dates back to 1970s. Since then, research scientists have shown interest in the compound by carrying out cell cultures and animal studies. All the experiments focused on establishing the significance of GM1 in neurodegenerative disorders.
In 1986, through TRB S.A, Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside sodium was officially launched under the trade name, GM-1. Given that the results on animal studies were promising, the US clinicians set out to investigate Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside sodium (GM1) effects on human. The subjects of the study were patients with CNS damage due to injury of the spinal cord, stroke, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer.
Since then, states such as Argentina and Italy have approved its therapeutic application as a prescription drug for the treatment of neurological conditions.
Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside Sodium(GM1)Structural Formula
Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside Sodium(GM1) Specifications
|Product Name||Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside Sodium (GM1) Pig Brain|
|IUPAC Name||(2S,4S,5R,6R)-5-acetamido-2-[(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-5-[(2S,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3-acetamido-5-hydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-4-[(2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxyoxan-2-yl]oxy-2-[(2R,3S,4R,5R,6R)-4,5-dihydroxy-6-[(E,2R,3S)-3-hydroxy-2-(icosanoylamino)icos-4-enoxyl]-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-3-yl]oxy-3-hydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-4-yl]oxy-4-hydroxy-6-[(1R,2R)-1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl]oxane-2-carboxylic acid|
|Melting Point||207 – 230°C|
|Molecular Mass||1546.841 gmol-1|
|Solubility||· Water |
· Slightly soluble in methanol/chloroform
· Nearly insoluble in anhydrous ethanol
|Appearance||White to off-white lyophilized powder|
|Shelf Life||Two years|
|pH||5.0 to 6.5|
|Synonyms||· Monosialoganglioside GM1 |
Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside Sodium(GM1) Mechanism of Action
Monosialotetrahexosyl ganglioside works in several ways. The molecule is an epicenter of most of the physiological activities of the nervous system.
In the cell membrane of the brain, Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside functions to maintain the ion balance within and outside the membranous tissue. Not only does it enhance impermeability, but it also evens out sodium and calcium ions pump.
In the case of nerve injury, Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside sodium (GM1) comes in to protect the membranous structure. It trims down the activity of phospholipase A2, moderates the calcium ion influx, and cuts down the formation of free radicals.
Brain traumas amplify the activity of protein kinase in the cells, which may be responsible for apoptosis. GM1 inhibits and reverses this process by holding the metabolism of proteins within the cytoplasm and nucleus.
Within the mitochondrion, Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside works to upregulate the production of ATP and its synthase activity. It repairs possible damages on the electron transport chain and improves the oxidative phosphorylation. As a result, the brain’s mitochondrial respiratory function remains healthy.
Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside sodium injection stimulates axonal sprouting by concentrating the growth factors to their specific receptors. This activity regenerates the nerve fibers and promotes rapid neurological recovery. In the case of secondary degeneration, probably due to dopamine neuron damage, Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside will stabilize the effect and enhance the survival of these neurons.
Monosialotrahexosylganglioside Solidum(GM1) Effects
Although gangliosides are the least in the brain, their functions are so enormous. These molecules have a positive impact on growth, regeneration, repair, and protection of the nerve fibers.
GM1 declines with age. Aging is associated with excessive use of brain, light dizziness, accidental nerve injuries, or memory deficits. Besides, severe old-age diseases such as cerebral palsy, stroke, and dementia are likely to pop-up.
Timely supplementation of exogenous GM1 helps manage most of the aging syndromes. Some of the positive Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside sodium (GM1) effects include the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy. Besides, the supplement slows down aging by improving memory.
The use of GM1 in clinical applications is quite extensive. For example, several European and American countries have been taking monosialotetrahexosylganglioside sodium injection to manage CNS diseases.
The supplement boosts the growth of the nerve cells, development of the brain tissues, and prevention of neurological disorders. Therapeutically, this exogenous molecule treats brain diseases, ischemic injuries, cerebral hemorrhage, and traumatic nerve cell injuries.
The most significant breakthrough in the study and application of this compound on humans was finding out that there were no detrimental Monosialotetrahexosyl ganglioside sodium (GM1) effects.
GM1 effects are not mere speculations. In 1976, Ceccarelli established that exogenous gangliosides induce central and peripheral nerve regeneration and repair of damaged cells. This discovery laid a solid foundation for scholars who showed interest in studying the role of GM1 in the central nervous system.
Scores of clinical trials confirm that Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside has a positive impact on growth, differentiation, development, and regeneration of the neurological cells. Moreover, studies back up the efficiency of GM1 in neuroprotection, neuroplasticity, and synaptic transmission.
In the case of trauma, taking the exogenous Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside sodium injection will affect the nervous system in several ways. The molecule will not only stimulate the dendritic generation of the nerve cells but also increase their survival rate. Secondly, the supplement has a significant role in repair, regeneration, and functional recovery.
Monosialotrahexosyl Ganglioside Solidum(GM1) Extract Method
So far, Monosialotetrahexosyl ganglioside is the only CNS treatment that is naturally-occurring.
The molecule is a ganglioside component, which is endogenously produced in the neural cell membrane of mammals. Due to its rich content in the nervous tissues, scientists and clinicians have been able to extract and use it in the preparation of medicinal monosialotetrahexose ganglion.
We extract Monosialotetrahexosyl ganglioside from the mammalian cells. Although you can isolate the molecule from an ox or a goat, the safest method is pig brain extract. The reason is that Monosialotetrahexosyl ganglioside extraction from oxen or goats will most likely transfer infectious prions such as mad-cow disease and epilepsy.
The raw materials for Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside sodium (GM1) lab extraction are accessible, efficient, and economical. We provide you with the safest and pure GM1 from pig brains, as the method does not transmit infections to humans.
For high yields, we apply the chloroform-methanol-water extraction method. Afterward, we carry out an anion exchange and size-exclusion chromatographic separation. This purification yields a homogenous molecule, which is >98% pure through HPLC.
The Monosialotetrahexosyl ganglioside effects are significant in clinical applications. It is an approved prescription drug for managing neurological disorders and treatment of central nervous injury.
Whether you want to buy GM1 for therapeutic uses or research purposes, we guarantee you high-grade product. We volume-produce Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside sodium (GM1) powder under approved quality control standards.
- Schneider, J.S., Roeltgen, D.P., et al. (1998). Parkinson’s Disease: Improved Function With GM1 Ganglioside Treatment in a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study.
- Bansal, A.S., Abdul-Karim, B., Malik, R.A., et al. (1994). IgM Ganglioside GM1 Antibodies in Patients with Autoimmune Disease or Neuropathy, and Controls. Journal Clinical Pathology.
- Mocchetti, I. (2005). Exogenous Gangliosides, Neuronal Plasticity and Repair, and the Neurotrophins.
- Aureli, M., Mauri, L., Ciampa, M.G., Prinetti, A., Toffano, G., et al. (2016). GM1 Ganglioside: Past Studies and Future Potential. Molecular Neurobiology.
- Bian, L., Yang, J., and Sun, Y. (2015). Isolation and Purification of Monosialotetrahexosylgangliosides from Pig Brain by Extraction and Liquid Chromatography.